Posts treating: "genetics"
Monday, 04 November 2013
A new technique successfully takes on a longstanding challenge in DNA sequencing – determining whether a particular genetic sequence comes from an individual's mother or father. The method, described in a Ludwig Cancer Research study in Nature Biotechnology, promises to accelerate studies of how genes contribute to disease, improve the process of matching donors with organs and help
Lorenzo Miodus-Santini an 11-year-old sixth-grader from Princeton, who was classified as autistic at only 13 months old, was never a big talker. As an infant he didn't babble or coo. When he was a toddler beginning to speak, he would learn one word but forget another.
His older brother, Christian, a 15-year-old high school sophomore, shared some similar characteristics – difficulty
Where did the first Americans come from? Most researchers agree that Paleoamericans moved across the Bering Land Bridge from Asia sometime before 15,000 years ago, suggesting roots in East Asia. But just where the source populations arose has long been a mystery.
Now comes a surprising twist, from the complete nuclear genome of a Siberian boy who died 24,000 years ago—the oldest
A study of the full genetic code of a common human virus offers a dramatic confirmation of the "out-of-Africa" pattern of human migration, which had previously been documented by anthropologists and studies of the human genome.
The virus under study, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), usually causes nothing more severe than cold sores around the mouth, says Curtis Brandt, a professor
Ants and bees are surprisingly more genetically related to each other than they are to social wasps such as yellow jackets and paper wasps, a team of University of California, Davis, scientists has discovered. The groundbreaking research is available online and will be published Oct. 21 in the print version of the journal Current Biology.
Using state-of-the-art genome sequencing
Insights into insect wing origin provided by functional analysis of vestigial in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum
Courtney M. Clark-Hachtel, David M. Linz, and Yoshinori Tomoyasu
Despite accumulating efforts to unveil the origin of insect wings, it remains one of the principal mysteries in evolution. Currently, there are two prominent models regarding insect
As described in a patent recently granted by the United States Patent Office, consumer genomics company 23andMe has developed a system for helping prospective parents choose the traits of their offspring, from disease risk to hair color. Put another way, it’s a designer baby-making system.
The company says it does not intend to use the technology this way. “When we originally
The first sequenced tiger genome shows that big cats evolved to kill.
Genes for strong muscle fibers and for meat-eating appear narrowly shared, researchers reported, among species as distinct as the African lion and Asia's snow leopard.
Scientists mapped the genes of the endangered Siberian tiger (or Amur tiger), both to understand the genes that make big cat species distinct from
When Francis Crick and James Watson discovered the double helical structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in 1953, it began a genetic revolution to map, study, and sequence the building blocks of living organisms.
DNA encodes the genetic material passed on from generation to generation. For the information encoded in the DNA to be made into the proteins and enzymes necessary for
Digit loss in archosaur evolution and the interplay between selection and constraints
1. Merijn A. G. de Bakker (a)
2. Donald A. Fowler (a)
3. Kelly den Oude (a)
4. Esther M. Dondorp (a)
5. M. Carmen Garrido Navas (a)
6. Jaroslaw O. Horbanczuk (b)
7. Jean-Yves Sire (c)
8. Danuta Szczerbińska (d)
9. Michael K. Richardson (a)
Reconciling migration models to the Americas with the variation of North American native mitogenomes
1. Alessandro Achilli (a)
2. Ugo A. Perego (b,c)
3. Hovirag Lancioni (a)
4. Anna Olivieri (b)
5. Francesca Gandini (b)
6. Baharak Hooshiar Kashani (b)
7. Vincenza Battaglia (b)
8. Viola Grugni (b)
9. Norman Angerhofer (c)
10. Mary P. Rogers (d)
11. Rene J. Herrera (e)
In a study published in Cell Research, Chinese scientists from Zhejiang University and BGI have completed the genome sequencing and analysis of the endangered Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis). This is the first published crocodilian genome, providing a good explanation of how terrestrial-style reptiles adapt to aquatic environments and temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD).
Scientists from Harvard Medical School and the CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology in Hyderabad, India, provide evidence that modern-day India is the result of recent population mixture among divergent demographic groups.
The findings, published August 8 in the American Journal of Human Genetics, describe how India transformed from a country where mixture between
In the 1970s, archaeologist Peter Bogucki was excavating a Stone Age site in the fertile plains of central Poland when he came across an assortment of odd artefacts. The people who had lived there around 7,000 years ago were among central Europe's first farmers, and they had left behind fragments of pottery dotted with tiny holes. It looked as though the coarse red clay had been baked
The St. Laurent Institute, a non-profit medical research institute focused on the systems biology of disease, today announced in a study published in the July edition of Genome Biology, that genetic matter, previously ignored by the scientific community, may play an important role in cancer. The study, "VlincRNAs controlled by retroviral elements are a hallmark of pluripotency and cancer"
It is nothing short of a world record in DNA research that scientists at the Centre for GeoGenetics at the Natural History Museum of Denmark (University of Copenhagen) have hit. They have sequenced the so far oldest genome from a prehistoric creature. They have done so by sequencing and analyzing short pieces of DNA molecules preserved in bone-remnants from a horse that had been kept frozen
Triggers for the Cambrian explosion: Hypotheses and problems
1. Xingliang Zhang (a)
2. Degan Shu (a)
3. Jian Han (a)
4. Zhifei Zhang (a)
5. Jianni Liu (a)
6. Dongjing Fu (a)
a. Early Life Institute and State Key Laboratory for Continental Dynamics, Department of Geology, Northwest University, Xian 710069, China
Abrupt appearance of
Long before plants and animals inhabited the earth, when life consisted of single-celled organisms afloat in a planet-wide sea, bacteria invaded these organisms and took up permanent residence. One bacterium eventually became the mitochondria that today power all plant and animal cells; another became the chloroplast that turns sunlight into energy in green plants.
A new analysis by
Efforts to restore sturgeon in the Great Lakes region have received a lot of attention in recent years, and many of the news stories note that the prehistoric-looking fish are "living fossils" virtually unchanged for millions of years.
But a new study by University of Michigan researchers and their colleagues reveals that in at least one measure of evolutionary change—changes in body
Mitochondria are the cell’s workhorse, transforming the calories we eat into useable energy. They have also been the subject of lots of scrutiny over longevity, since lifespan is intimately tied up with metabolism. Now a new study reports that mitochondrial malfunction may actually be the key to extending life.
Although loss of mitochondrial function has been associated with increased